Paired endocrine organ which sits above the kidney.
Important in synthesis of cortisol, adrenaline, nor-adrenaline.
Part of the endocirne and neurological systems
Essentially different organs within the same structure composed of a thick outer cortex and thin inner medulla.
Lie within the PERIRENAL SPACE bilaterally
BOUNDed by the PERIRENAL fascia, above and medial to the kidneys
Composed of a body and 2 limbs.
Embryologically derived from the neural crest
Part of the sympathetic nervous system
Chromaffin cells secreted catecholamines (epinephrine) into blood stream.
The right adrenal
is usually more apical in location
LIES ANTERIORLATER TO THE RIGHT CRUS of the diaphragm, medial to liver and posterior to the IVC
Often pyramidal in shape with an inverted V shape on transverse section.
Usually more caudal and lies media to the upper pole of the left kidney, lateral to the left crux of the diaphragm, and posterior to the splenic vein and pancreas.
Often crescentic in shape with a triangular cross-section.
INFERIOR: superior pole of the kidney
Medial: psoas, aorta on the left, IVC on the right
POSTERIOR: Quadratus lumborum
Lateral: liver on the right, Spleen on the left.
Anterior: lesser sac, duodenum.
Superior adrenal arteries: from inferior phrenic arteries
Middle adrenal artery: from the aorta at the Lv of L1.
Inferior adrenal artery: from the renal artery
Pancake adrenal gland
ectopic adrenal gland - ie accessory adrenal rests, often near adreanl glands but may be found any where in abdo, pelvis, or scrotum.
Images from Stat Dx:
Image from Stat Dx: https://my.statdx.com/document/adrenal/8b668baa-0efb-4063-9904-6671e87cb86b?searchTerm=adrenal%20gland
Shirkhoda A. Variants and Pitfalls in Body Imaging. LWW. ISBN:0781797888. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
McMINN. Lasts Anatomy Regional and Applied. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. (2003) ISBN:B0084AQDG8. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon